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精灵宝可梦五大神兽 [梦从何来?——做梦的五大原因]

来源:平面设计 发布时间:2019-06-22 04:11:52 点击:

  Some people remember vivid[生动的] dreams; some swear they cannot remember dreaming at all. Some dream in black and white; most people dream in color. However, one thing is for sure, everyone dreams. From the time we are babies until the day we die, our minds constantly[不断地] produce dreams while our bodies and brains are at rest. But, what exactly are dreams, and why do we have them?
  Dreaming is a symbolic[象征的] language designed to communicate your inner wisdom to you while you are asleep. The part of your subconscious[潜意识的] that processes[加工,处理] dreams—your dream self—sends messages as symbols and images, which in turn conveys[传达] ideas or situations in a visual[视觉的] language.
  有些人能回忆起生动的梦境,有些人则宣称他们根本不记得自己做过梦;有些人的梦是黑白的,大多数人的梦则是彩色的。不过,有一件事是肯定的——每个人都会做梦。从我们还是小宝宝时起,直到死去的那天,在我们的身体与大脑休息时,我们的意识都在不断地制造梦境。但梦到底是什么,我们又为什么会做梦呢?
  梦是一种符号语言,让你得以在睡眠时与自己的内在智慧进行交流。在你的潜意识当中,负责处理梦境的那一部分——也就是你的“梦中自我”——利用象征符号和图像传递信息,依次将各种想法或情况转化为可视化语言。
  While many agree about what dreams are, there is still debate over why we actually dream. Most experts believe we dream to assist the body with rest, repair and rejuvenation[更新恢复]. Others speculate[推测] that we dream for psychological[的] reasons: to re-examine the day’s events, to reduce and relieve stress, and to provide an outlet[出口] for pent-up[被压抑的] emotions. Keep reading to see the five most widely accepted reasons why we dream.
   5. Compensation[补偿]
  Although we might have fantastical[空想的] dreams of flying, or getting pleasantly lost in a land called Oz注1, these beautiful dreams really are not as abstract[抽象的] as one might think. Famed psychologist[心理学家] Carl Jung注2 believed that even our most fanciful[奇异的] dreams are methods of compensation for events that occur in our waking lives. For example, a person who experiences unhappiness in their waking life may have fantastically blissful[有福的] dreams as compensation, so their spirits won’t plummet[垂直落下] into complete despair[失望]. On the other hand, a person who is largely successful may also have dreams of failure or defeat to compensate for feelings of invincibility[无敌] and power.
  Jung also suggests that dreams may also reflect underdeveloped parts of our personalities[个性]. This may explain the reason why the dream behavior of some people is very different from the actions and conditions in their waking lives.
  尽管很多人对梦的定义有一个普遍共识,不过对于我们做梦的真正原因,人们至今依然争论不休。大多数专家认为,我们做梦是为了让自身歇息修复,重焕活力。其他人则猜测我们做梦有心理学上的原因:重新检视当天发生的事情、减轻和缓解压力,并为被压抑的情绪提供一个宣泄口。继续读下去吧,看看做梦的五个最受认可的原因是什么—    5. 补偿作用
  尽管我们也许会做一些很神奇的梦,比如翱翔天际,又或是在一个叫奥兹国的地方愉快地迷了路,这些美梦其实并不像我们想象的那么抽象。著名心理学家卡尔·荣格认为,即便是最稀奇古怪的梦境,也不过是对在我们清醒时发生的事情的补偿。打个比方,一个人在清醒时遇到不开心的事情,他/她也许会做一些奇妙的幸福美梦作为补偿,这样他/她的心情就不会彻底跌到低谷。另一方面,一个非常成功的人也有可能做一些失手或者落败的恶梦,从而抵消那种战无不胜、充满力量的感觉。
  荣格同时指出,梦境还能反映出我们性格中没有得到充分发展的部分。这也许就能解释为什么有些人的梦中行为与他们清醒时的行动和情形会有非常大的差异。
   4. Coping M echanism[机制]
  When dealing with stressful situations, your dreams become very different, and sometimes reflect your inner feelings. By displaying significant symbols and issues[问题] relating to your waking life, your dreams are trying to establish[建立] connections as an effort to cope with your inner stress.
  Psychiatry[精神病学] professor Ernest Hartmann suggests that dreams are directed by particular emotions, like stress and worry. Varying emotions cause new material to be constantly “weaved” into the memory of the dreamer in ways that help him or her cope with stress, trauma[创伤] and other types of psychological anxiety[忧虑].
   3. Inf ormat ion Processing and M emory
  Research already supports the claim that sleep is fundamental[基本的] to a well functioning mind and memory. However, some suggest that the key to memory consolidation[巩固] lies not within a few hours of rest, but in the dreams we have instead.
  Most dreams incorporate[合并] recent events we’ve experienced. Perhaps you dreamt of that traffic accident you saw last week, or you might have reflected on your weekly trip to the grocery store. These kinds of dreams might actually be your brain processing and organizing the conscious[有意识的] and unconscious[无意识的] stimuli[刺激物] it receives throughout the day. After your daily memories have been consolidated by your dreams, your brain gets a chance to refresh itself, in a sense[在某种意义上]; dreams are the brain’s way of “rebooting[重新启动] the system.”
   4. 应对机制
  当面对充满压力的情况,你的梦境会变得很不一样,有时还能反映出你内心的想法。通过一些有重大意义的符号,以及一些与清醒时有所联系的事情,梦境试图建立起各种关联,以应对你的内在压力。
  精神病学教授欧内斯特·哈特曼认为梦境由特定的情绪“执导”,比如压力以及担忧。不同的情绪将新素材不断地“编织”成做梦者的记忆,从而帮助他/她面对压力、创伤,以及其他心理焦虑。
   3. 信息处理与记忆
  已有研究证实睡眠对大脑与记忆的良好运作至关重要。不过,有人认为巩固记忆的关键并不在于那几小时的休息,而在于我们所做的梦。
  大多数梦境会包含我们最近的经历。你也许梦见了上周目睹的那场交通事故,又或者回忆起每周都要去杂货店的经历。这样的梦可能其实是你的大脑正在分析整理它这一天下来接收到的各种刺激元素——无论是有意识的还是无意识的。在某种意义上,等梦境对你的日常记忆进行巩固之后,你的大脑就可以提提神;梦境就是大脑“重启系统”的方式。
   2. Resolution[分解,解决]
  If you’re puzzled over a particularly difficult problem, the last thing you’ll want to do is lose sleep over it. In fact, you just might want to get more. We already know the positive[积极的] effects of sleep and dreams on memory, but dreams can also help us tackle everyday problems in life.   When approached with obstacles[障碍], we primarily pull on information we already know—our memories—to resolve[解决] them. This makes dreaming especially helpful because it helps organize and consolidate memories, making them easier to get to when we’re problem solving. Some scientists also propose[建议] that while we sleep, our brains continue to process issues of concern in our waking lives and constantly attempt to come up with[想出,提出] answers and solutions. So if you’re facing a particularly difficult situation, go ahead and sleep on it. It might actually help.
   1. W ish Fulf illment
  Have you ever noticed that your dreams always involve[包括] you? Don’t worry; dreams are naturally egocentric[自我中心的] because they typically reflect one of your deep desires or concerns. In Sigmund Freud’s注3 influential[有影响力的] book, The Interpretation[解释] of Dreams, he suggests that dreams are the direct result of repressed[被压抑的] emotions and they might represent unconscious thoughts, wishes or desires.
  In dreams, your subconscious can uncover the wishes that your conscious mind has learned to repress. Maybe that dream about you driving a racecar made of cheese wasn’t so foolish after all; it could just be your subconscious desire to be the best NASCAR注4 driver ever sponsored[赞助] by Kraft.
   2. 分析情况
  如果一个特别难办的问题让你迷惑不解,你最不想做的事情就是为之辗转难眠。事实上,你也许还想睡久一点呢。我们已经知道睡眠和做梦对记忆有积极作用,而梦境还可以帮助我们解决日常生活中会遇到的问题。
  遇到困难时,我们首先会提取出已知的信息——也就是我们的记忆来解决问题。这就让做梦显得尤为有益,因为梦境能帮助我们整理及巩固记忆,让我们在解决问题时更容易找到这些信息。还有些科学家指出,我们睡觉时,大脑仍然在处理我们清醒时所关注的事情,并不断尝试找出问题答案以及解决办法。所以如果你面临一个特别棘手的困境,不妨先睡一觉,明天再说吧——可能真有帮助呢。
   1. 满足愿望
  你留意到了吗,你的梦总是和自己有关吧?别担心,梦境本来就是以自我为中心的,因为它们反映的是你的深层欲望或关注点。西格蒙德·弗洛伊德写了一本影响深远的《梦的解析》,他在书中指出,梦境由被压抑的情绪直接导致,可能代表着无意识的想法、愿望或欲望。
  在梦中,显意识压制的愿望会被潜意识揭露出来。也许你梦见自己驾驶着一辆奶酪做的赛车并不是什么蠢事——这可能是你在潜意识里渴望成为卡夫食品公司赞助的、史上最棒的纳斯卡赛车手呢。
  注1:小说《绿野仙踪》中一个虚构的国度。
  注2:卡尔·荣格(1875-1961),瑞士心理学家、精神科医生,分析心理学的创始者。
  注3:西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(1856-1939),犹太人,奥地利精神分析学家,精神分析学的创始人。著有《梦的解析》、《精神分析引论》、《图腾与禁忌》等。
  注4:全国汽车竞赛协会(National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing)的简称,是美国最大、最受认可的赛车竞速团体。

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